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During the spring of 2009, while my wife was teaching as a Fulbright senior lecturer in Sofia, I studied the Bulgarian language at Sofia University's Department of Language Learning, which is a branch of the Institute for Foreign Students. (My wife also studied Bulgarian there.) We each took approximately seven weeks of intensive courses.

If you click here, you will see a copy of my certificate. As the certificate indicates, I received a grade of five out of six, which corresponds to "very good."

I am showing below two views of the interior of the building that houses the Institute for Foreign Students. The photograph on the left shows a typical language classroom, and the one on the right provides a look at the hallway. My wife took both of these pictures.

IFS classroom IFS classroom

My knowledge of Bulgarian remains rudimentary. However, I have developed excellent proficiency at reading and writing the Cyrillic alphabet.

Croatian, including the Glagolitic alphabet

On and off, for the last several years, I have engaged myself in self-study of the Croatian language. In July and Augst 2013, my wife Susan and I took a two-week Croatian language course at the University of Zadar. If you click here, you will see my diploma and certificate. My wife earned the same diploma and certificate.

Concurrently with my study of the Croatian language, I have been learning the Glagolitic alphabet. Click here for further information regarding my work with Glagolitic and related topics. That page contains an instruction sheet that I authored for writing the lower-case Glagolitic alphabet. You may click here for a stand-alone PDF of that sheet.


In the summer of 1984, I took the French-language immersion course in Quebec city's Laval University. This was an excellent and rigorous study of French. You may click here to see a transcript of my grades, which shows the following grades: 'B' in "Grammaire et explication de textes" (3 credits) ; 'A' in "Exercises stucturaux I" (1 credit); 'A' in "Phonetique corrective I" (1 credit); and 'C' in "Conversation dirigee I" (1 credit).

During the academic year 2007/2008, I also took Intermediate French 1 and 2 at the University of Southern Maine, where I earned an 'A' in both courses.


I took two years of German in high school and one year of German as a freshman in college. In August 1982, I also took a German-language summer program held at the University of W├╝rzburg.


I took three years of Latin in high school.

Praxis II exam
(Test code: 0361; Test name: "English to Speakers of Other Languages" [ESOL])

On 30 April 2011, I took the Praxis II exam, administered at the University of Southern Maine. The possible score range was 100-200, and I received a score of 168. The Maine State Department of Education requires a score of 144, and therefore I passed this exam in Maine. The Maryland State Depatment of Education requires a score of 149 on this exam, and therefore in Maryland as well I would be deemed to have passed this exam .

For detailed information regarding my Praxis II exam score, click here.

TESOL Certficate earned at
the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) during the summer of 2015

If you click here, you will see a copy of the TESOL certificate that I earned at UMBC during the summer of 2015.